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Prolog stands for program in logic, which supports NLP (Natural Language Processing). It was designed in Europe by Mr. Alain Colmerauer and Mr. Robert Kowalski. Prolog can also be called as program logistic or program logistics.
Prolog is based on the concept of Artificial Intelligence. Artificial intelligence is the intelligence of software and machines, which uses the basics of Meta knowledge. Meta Knowledge is the knowledge of knowledge, which means that a machine tries and learn concepts and logics according to the older mistakes it has already done or the older knowledge it has acquired.
The best example where this is used is in the field of robotics and research. NASA has currently designed a robot in 2015, which uses this kind of learning.
This is used in Expert Systems as well. In artificial intelligence, expert system is a computer system that emulates the decision making ability of a human expert. Artificial intelligence has always been used to solve complicated stuff and to code the most complicated part of the computers so as
Expert systems are a part of artificial intelligence, these too solves the complex problems with the help of logistics.
Wherever we need something related to the domain of Artificial Intelligence to code and to provide logic to something, we always use Prolog which has been used widely over years of development and gain. Rules based on logical design are written to make the idea execute.
As far as programming languages are concerned, like C, C++ and JAVA, there are many drawbacks in coding them. They own a very long code to program a very small logic which can actually be implemented through algorithms in a very small space, which reduces time and space complexity of the program coded.
The long code makes the program very difficult to understand and implement at times, so to make it a bit easier prolog was launched in the market in early days of 1972.
Most of the programming languages we use today to code are procedural. Prolog is a declarative programming language, which means that a programmer only tells how to achieve the goal and rest of the things of logic applications and implementations are done by the Prolog System.
In a procedural system like in C, C++, Java programming languages we need to define all the logic for the successful execution of the code, but on the other hand for Prolog we need not do that we just define what is needed to be done that is only the outline and rest of the logic and stuff is itself achieved by the prolog system.
Although to achieve that we need to follow a particular procedure.
Prolog is based on First Order Programming logic. First order programming is one of the most popular programming language today to be used. First order programming logic is an extension of propositional logic.
Like in SQL we write a query and the result is displayed, similarly here we write rules and these rules act as a very important part in the logic design, which help in the creation and successful execution of the logic written.
First order programming is represented as facts and rules. It is used to express concepts. It consist of an alphabet and sets rules for the logic to be written. The alphabet consist of seven classes of symbols:
- Function Symbols.
- Predicate Symbols.
- Punctuation Symbols.
This post is all about Prolog but it is very difficult to explain the entire Prolog system in a single one, It is a very huge concept to understand and implement, so I will be explaining only the basics and where it can be actually used by you.
I have tried my level best to explain you the entire procedure and things related to the Prolog, I have given brief introduction to everything in here. I assure you this article would be very helpful to understand it.
To go to more depth of Prolog, to know and understand it more, here is how Prolog uses clauses, which divided into two types:
Rule is written something like this:
Head :- Body
Which means that Head is true only and only if the body is true.
An example of Rule :
Animal(X) :- cat(X) .
Facts are Clauses with empty bodies and can be explained like this:
This shows that tuffy is a Dog, which means this condition is true that is:
Dog(tuffy) :- true .
One can deduce the following from the above discussion:
- Is tuffy a dog?
?- dog(tuffy) .
- What things are dog ?
?- dog(x) .
X = tuffy .
These Rules and Facts are the basic building blocks of the Prolog. Without them you cannot imagine your code implementation and logic building by the compiler. As to give instructions, you need a certain things to keep in mind, so that compiler can understand for what it has to make logic, that is to understand it more clearly, there will be certain keywords which compiler must understand otherwise it will consider rest of the words as the similar once and would not be able to differentiate and define for which all the things are actually written. Hence, these rules are defined and used as shown above in the example.
In Prolog queries can also be written, here is a sample for hello world program:
?- write(‘Hello World’) .
Here is the twist, Not only programming languages can write a Hello World program, but our prolog is also very capable of writing the Hello World code. Prolog owns a bit different syntax to write so, it uses “?-“ and “?-“ to start and end the code, these symbols when used tells the prolog compiler the code has started and ended.
As C uses printf(); , C++ uses cout<<”” and Java uses System.out.print(); or System.out.println(); to print or to display the output, prolog uses write to print something on the screen.
To explain the prolog, here is a simple example, which will help you understand how actually it is used :
trust(ankit, shivam) .
trust(ankit, ragini) .
trust(ravi, ragini) .
trust(ravi, ankit) .
So, in order to answer them, here is the list of what can be concluded from the above used statements :
- ?- trust(ankit, shivam).
- ?- trust(ravi,ragini).
- ?- trust(ravi, shivam).
This very scenario can be explained as we have defined some facts and rules in the beginning and in order to justify which one is true and which isn’t here we go:
As we have defined in the Rules that Shivam trust Ankit so the first assumption is true on the other hand when we try to conclude that ragini as defined the above facts and figures it also comes out to be true while in the third case where ragini trust ravi, and ankit trust ravi, we have tried concluding that shivam trust ravi, they do not co relate anywhere in the above facts and rules that is the reason they are being considered here as Negative outputs which are not possible in this very given scenario.
But yes, if we would have asked anything related to above pre-defined rules and regulations of the prolog it would have been considered positive and would have positive outcome. So, the third output will be No in this very case.
Like any other language, Prolog also owns some built in predicates, which are although used very differently in this very scenario, the prolog has these predicates for input, output, arithmetic and tests etc, some of them are described here :
- X + Y
- X – Y
- X * Y
- X / Y
- X mod Y
- X =:= Y
- X =\= Y
- X == Y
- X \== Y
Here are some of the advantages and disadvantages of using Prolog:
- It has built-in list handling.
- It is more a mathematical notation.
- One need not to be a programming expert to do something in Prolog, anyone can do and learn it very easily.
- Even while running the code it is very easy to make database and tables.
- Sometimes things look logically perfect and correct, but when run in the compiler they don’t.
- Input and output is not always easy.
Prolog is something which once learnt and mastered, it becomes the most simplest and easy to maintain language, as it uses only some words to code or program to define the very logic and rest of the things are already done by the compiler itself.
As explained earlier it uses only the basic functionalities, which are sometimes very complicated but if broken down and written to make out logic from it becomes the easiest thing one has ever come across with.
Prolog is something where we only need to describe the situation as we have described in the above examples and rest of the things related to logic development and implementations are done by the compiler itself and this is the easiest way to understand what Prolog is and why do we use it so frequently even today and why do it is still required by big companies for development and other related things in the field of development.
Prolog is taught in Universities for higher level degrees like B.tech, M.tech, P.Hd, we can understand it’s importance from the very fact that not only these most popular degrees demand this language, but most of the other important degrees like BCA, MCA has made it as a compulsory subject to learn in most of the colleges and universities.
This is used in artificial intelligence and has very high importance among all the domains of computer science and technology. People learning it and understanding it, gets the high salary package from the industries.
There could be lot many assignments and projects that could be asked to made, you can use it as a language to code in your capstone projects and other training period projects. Some of the assignments and projects that could be done in Prolog are:
- Style parser
- Financial Market Predictor
- Solver for Sudoku
- Solver for logic puzzles
- Implementation of Tic Tac Toe
- Automated theorem proving.
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